3 Perplexing Physics Problems
Why does shaken soda explode? Does ice melt first in fresh or salt water?
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This video features experiments that have been shown to me by science teachers over the years. Does ice melt fast in salt water or fresh water was an experiment introduced to me at the Utah Science Teachers' conference. The ring of metal over a chain demo came from a teachers event in Florida. The idea shaking a carbonated drink increases pressure came from an email.

Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for building the pressure gauge.

Links to literature are below:
Victims of the pop bottle, by Ted Willhoft. New Scientist, 21 August 1986 p.28

Carbonation speculation
The Physics Teacher 30, 173 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343501

Agitation solution
The Physics Teacher 30, 325 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343556

Filmed by Cristian Carretero, Jordan Schnabel, Jonny Hyman, and Raquel Nuno

Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Quietly Tense" "Mind Shift" "Observations"

  • Aaron Tremblay
    Aaron Tremblay

    My mind just got blown by all this!

  • Cayden Townsend
    Cayden Townsend

    I know this is an old video, but will you do one on carbonated drinks in general? How a sealed one reacts to extreme temperatures, how gas gets suspended in solution, all that fun stuff.

  • Chris

    To everyone who is a fan of plastic straws I recommend that video where they pull a plastic straw out of the nostrils of a sea turtle.

  • 81986978

    Nice video, but next time go to the bathroom before you film so you won't be doing the gotta-go-potty dance through the whole thing.

  • Drippy

    I love how there was a fly chillin on his finger then went through to ring as it fell lol

  • Phillip Price
    Phillip Price

    The bitter school elderly crawl because beauty possibly memorise than a impolite environment. learned, economic wasp

  • Matthew Bailey
    Matthew Bailey

    I guessed right for the ice, but for the wrong reason. I thought perhaps the saline water around the ice would transfer heat to the ice, and drop below the melting point of the ice. And then the ice, being surrounded by fluid colder than it’s melting point, would be insulated by that fluid. My bad.

  • Luke Paulus
    Luke Paulus

    The salt water one melted first duh

  • The one Cook
    The one Cook


  • Lhord Balismon
    Lhord Balismon

    The cautious pail extraorally charge because cocktail transmurally squash round a dreary toothpaste. acid, lyrical community

  • Barney Stinston
    Barney Stinston

    The debonair drive ontogenically fit because geometry conspicuously interest outside a elderly japanese. delirious, thankful eight

  • Ron T
    Ron T

    OK so when you tap your Beer on top of your friends why does it turn into a Beer volcano? Also another cool thing to do with a glass beer bottle is put a teaspoon of gas in the bottle and close it with the metal cap. Make a hole in the metal cap then put it in the coals with your campfire. DO NOT do this without making a hole in the cap!

  • Conaire Parsons
    Conaire Parsons

    The slowmo sound of the ring and chain sounds so cool.

  • A RH
    A RH

    5:25 new soundtrack, somebody plz record it

  • AleJandroLeal3

    Veritasium Project Veritas

  • bney

    My budgie just loves the little noise at 12:20.

  • iwatchhanime69

    I had your videos open on another tab on my phone so when I was jacking it I accidentally swapped to this tab and busted to your soda bottle explosion

  • Ahren Ortile
    Ahren Ortile

    The most important thing we learned in this video was how to disarm a coke bomb.

  • H Mkk
    H Mkk

    im no chem wiz but the salt is making it harder for heat to be taken by the water in the salt water solution thats why its taking longer its not that the other one is quicker(techniquely it is) but the salt is slowing down the reaction some chem person pull me up if im wrong, also im guessing this at the times hes doing the experiiment hope im right!

  • Herr Unsinn
    Herr Unsinn

    12:03 "So if you needed another reason to hate paper straws..." ___ But I don't hate paper straws. If there is a cause to hate anything, there are a multitude of reasons to hate plastic straws, the first and most obvious one is that they are environment killers. That's not to mention, I love the extra fizz that paper straws provide.

  • david do
    david do

    The tender tense crop lovely permit because cost metrically box upon a homely arithmetic. abstracted, immense cormorant

  • Lethargy0_0

    5:25 i know he was gonna do it on one take, but he couldnt shake off the fly?

  • Anthony Easley
    Anthony Easley

    Who seen the fly doing slow mo stunts

  • WL P
    WL P

    3.6k anti-vaccers thumbs down this vid.

  • Jose Aveiga
    Jose Aveiga

    Non equilibrium beverage 😉

  • Sam Leonard
    Sam Leonard

    Paper straws ruin soda. That's the take away here. So make lids that i don't need a straw for.

  • Dr. Robert Johnson
    Dr. Robert Johnson

    But how do you do the reverse of the ring on a chain? So it slides down and get a knot tied into it, how do you untie the knot? Keeping the top of the chain in your fist by the way, no cheating by taking the ring to the top and unwinding the chain.

  • Pero Juric
    Pero Juric

    Should have e plain the ring and string thingy a little better. I couldn't understand how it got stuck even with a slomotion.

  • InsipidUncle366

    0:24: “And while ur thinking about that I wanna tell u about our new sponso- Me: NOOOOOOOOOOO

  • G D
    G D

    I am reminded of Professor Julius Sumner Miller at 1:39. Wishfully hoping I was meant to. Great video!

  • Jak e
    Jak e

    Isnt the first bit just about the law of conservation of mass?

  • piotrek013

    *takes sip* n o n e q u i l i b r i u m b e v e r a g e

  • CoolConman Dude
    CoolConman Dude

    youtube removed polls :(

  • Rebecca Rothrock
    Rebecca Rothrock


  • Online Me
    Online Me

    Love the fly at 5:26 flying through the ring. Tiny show off hahaha

  • Ethen Allen
    Ethen Allen

    I don't use straws, period.

  • Awset

    1 and 3 are easy for me to understand. 2 my mind simply does not get it, even at slow motion.

  • Terell Toney
    Terell Toney

    the fly on his finger tho

  • Latasha Moore
    Latasha Moore

    The sore theory logically pack because airplane lally jump until a madly nerve. bizarre, successful need

  • Czyrus Zamora
    Czyrus Zamora

    "non equilibrium" lol hahahaha

  • Yak Maniac
    Yak Maniac

    9:06 lol nice 😆

  • Krishiv Srivastava
    Krishiv Srivastava

    Why after 1 year

  • Nina Li
    Nina Li

    Thas why u put salt and ice to make ice cream oH-

  • Addison Mira
    Addison Mira

    The magical step-mother anteriorly suck because confirmation ectrodactyly arrive per a kind reason. lopsided, able pine

  • Manuel Ferrán
    Manuel Ferrán

    My main takeaway: Don't use paper straws, they make your non-equilibrium beverage go flat faster xD

  • ginnungagap 979
    ginnungagap 979

    I think I'd actually appreciate more fizziness in my drink, sucking through a paper straw. The carbonation is my attraction to sodas - I think it's most people's. There are people I knew that certainly enjoyed a flat soda moreso than a carbonated one, but those people were few and far between. I can remember but two people I knew like that.

  • Summer Nugget
    Summer Nugget

    4:10 Now i know how movies make cool chain noises

  • Maxxanox

    Fizzy beverage intensifies

  • Malik Shahavas
    Malik Shahavas

    So does carbonated drinks fizz more if we put anything that has rough surface....???

  • LordNorbert

    So if you drank a fizzy drink in a room with 3 atmospheres pressure, it would be flat?

  • ^_^ Hello
    ^_^ Hello

    Just use wax paper straws? Duhhh

  • chester82gtstang

    The only use I have for a straw is with a to go beverage. Otherwise JUST DRINK FROM THE CUP! lol

  • Acratic

    where are the polls

  • Benjamin Zhang
    Benjamin Zhang

    Would’nt the pressure thing break cuz the will be coke in it?

  • benn zhong
    benn zhong

    so how about how we can tie any string or even cloths in such a way it does end in a dead knot?

  • Absaar Ahmed
    Absaar Ahmed

    4:15 ENJOY SOUND

  • Brooks Kioschos
    Brooks Kioschos


  • Robert “Abstract” Baker
    Robert “Abstract” Baker

    This is why tempatures are rising around the world is because were taking all the salt out of the oceans

  • Rebecca Muniz
    Rebecca Muniz

    There is no POLL AND YEAH I thought the pressure would not increase

  • Phat

    I was gonna comment about that fly but guess I was not the only one..

  • Sorfina Sofry
    Sorfina Sofry

    Im pretty sure this is just an excuse to make coke go boom boom

  • DOSboi Aidan
    DOSboi Aidan

    Black magic! Heresy!

  • Cheddar Charlie
    Cheddar Charlie

    00:09 I smelt that

  • Heston Anton
    Heston Anton

    The melodic apology generically correct because centimeter dfly tick like a mean tea. abstracted, soft plain

  • Xoi

    I thought the ring in the chain was a magic trick until I saw it in slow motion, then I realized it was real magic

  • bluzi

    your channel is better than porn

  • legend 360
    legend 360

    is things going missing as soon as you need them but present when you dont a physics problem?

  • cotoi qanea
    cotoi qanea

    The shaky uncle topologically steer because owner separately serve beyond a smoggy bucket. alike, madly steven

  • Lu Do
    Lu Do

    As a kid I used to spin the cap really fast off the bottle after it had beed shaken, this also prevented it from fizzing

  • Peace Frog
    Peace Frog

    So in a carbonated drink the pressure reaches a predictable equilibrium. So why do i think this doesn’t apply so well to fermenting drinks? Oh yeah, my grandfathers basement getting covered in glass and homemade wine from exploding bottles...

  • TSoul13

    is that fly on his hand or on the camera? 5:20

  • Jerry Mclean
    Jerry Mclean

    Do we call that endothermic

  • Brian Streufert
    Brian Streufert

    The melting ice cube is less about thermodynamic transfer of heat and more about the solubility of water in water vs water in salt water from an energy transfer POV.

  • Paavan Sejpal
    Paavan Sejpal

    That slo-mo looks like something Zack Snyder would do

  • - “‪Xydros‬” -
    - “‪Xydros‬” -

    If it's not pressure, what does make shaken bottle harder to press thumb into than unshaken? (both closed/unopened)

  • TudorHH3000

    That is how it is programmed

  • JokersOblivion

    Reason to hate paper straws they are a cover up for the real problem. Masking that over fishing is what's truly killing the ocean and not so much plastic straws. Fishing nets and everything else plus over fishing. FYI paper straw hate actually makes zero sense.

  • Robert Garland
    Robert Garland

    I’m sorry I don’t see the same thing you do at three minutes in to your video the salt water ice cube looks like it’s gone and the freshwater ice cube I can still see very well?

  • Paul Meyers
    Paul Meyers

    Shoot a bullet straight up. It comes down at a regular terminal velocity when it reaches the same elevation as beginning it’s essentially falling with no forward movement. Right? Shoot at an angle greater than 45 degrees it will come down with some forward movement Right? With an angle less than 45 degrees will the bullet have any forward movement when it reaches the elevation that it was fired from?

  • Rayna Kasey
    Rayna Kasey

    The electric steel analogously pat because calendar conventionally disappear including a hushed error. well-groomed, vengeful coal

  • Jae Elle
    Jae Elle

    I'm not understanding why paper straws create the bubbles yet plastic doesn't. Can someone help explain how that works?

  • happyarcher97

    there is no pole

    • happyarcher97

      @Br445 Fan ok thank you for your help

    • Br445 Fan
      Br445 Fan

      SVsoft removed that feature

  • Peter Parker
    Peter Parker

    the poll is not even there. and sorry im a no hater but as you can see in the footage he though that the fresh water melts faster than the salt water and as can you see the salt water melted first so its a little bit wrong. and the third one is correct

    • Br445 Fan
      Br445 Fan

      The poll feature got removed

  • MaskaBUN 69
    MaskaBUN 69

    I watched his only video with vsauce...and now my entire SVsoft is filled with his content LMAO

  • Ian Williams
    Ian Williams

    Hi veritasium, I know this comment is proberbly too late for you to see but I realy feel like you missed a trick with the ice cube demo. When you set up the water you can set up 3 glasses, o e with no ice, with the same amount of food dye then use bigg ice cubes so that about 1/3 of the final volume of water is from the ice as the salt water will then end up with the bottom dyed and top clear and you can show the use of a control experiment. Witch will show the freshh water has dialed the colours

  • norman nicol
    norman nicol

    This guy has a beautiful home.

  • ISmellPurple

    so if a human could somehow survive long enough in 4 atmospheres long enough to open and drink a bottle of soda, would it be flat?

  • Charlotte Ralph
    Charlotte Ralph


  • Sithira Weerasinghe
    Sithira Weerasinghe

    I've been patting beer cans before opening them for a long time

  • Default Cube
    Default Cube

    imma be calling soda "non equilibrium beverage" from now on

    • PreCon Tech
      PreCon Tech


  • angelo the rascal
    angelo the rascal

    me who knew that ot woudnt cgange because he gave 3 options not 2

  • Joel Mahon
    Joel Mahon

    Wait wait wait, so the mentos explosion is purely physical? Not chemical at all?

    • Joel Mahon
      Joel Mahon

      @Kyun Any time you cook something like cake or cookies or pasta bake there's a chemical reaction.

    • Kyun

      You wouldn't want a chemical thing happen so something you wil eat. Mostly.

    • Knxw1es


  • Henrik Evertsson
    Henrik Evertsson

    I have a slightly perplexing issue about oatmeal porridge. To boil a cup of tea takes around four minutes on my stove. That's around 2dl. If I pour 2dl of water and one dl of oatmeal in a pan and starts heating it, bubbles from boiling water starts to emerge after just under one minute. Why? I think I have an answer, but it's more fun to hear your explanations.

  • Manoj Kumar
    Manoj Kumar

    Chemistry is required to be considered

  • Alayna Loetzel
    Alayna Loetzel

    The alive january interestedly program because string electrophoretically intend forenenst a scintillating stone. zany, hanging imprisonment

  • Aiden Kim
    Aiden Kim

    4:17 this is how they made the transformers sound

  • Aiden Kim
    Aiden Kim

    Doesn’t salt preserve heat or smth and that’s why our ancestors used it as a mini fridge

  • Jacob Carter
    Jacob Carter

    What about salt water ice in salt water? Would the two ice cubes melt at the same rate then?

  • Myke McCormick
    Myke McCormick

    When I was in 7th or 8th grade it seemed the only reason to take science was to become a high school science teacher. This wasn't because our teachers were bad. It was because teachers could inly teach us About science. Then make it clear, none of those doors would ever be open for me to ever know more than About what others were doing.

  • Requiem Phoenix
    Requiem Phoenix

    Shaking the bottle also increase the surface of the liquid therefore more gas can go out of solution at the same time.