How One Supernova Measured The Universe
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In 2015 astronomers successfully predicted the appearance of a supernova within a couple weeks. How did they do it? Win your Ultimate Tech Bundle by entering Fasthosts’ Techie Test here: fasthosts.com/veritasium (Competition now closed) This video was sponsored by Fasthosts.

Special thanks to Geraint Lewis for consulting on gravitational lensing. Check out his SVsoft channel: ve42.co/gfl and books: ve42.co/GFLbooks

The supernova image in the thumbnail is from my documentary, Uranium: Twisting The Dragon's Tail. Check it out here: genepoolproductions.com/urani...

References:
DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN: THE REAPPEARANCE OF SUPERNOVA REFSDAL
P. L. Kelly et al. arxiv.org/abs/1512.04654

Predicted properties of multiple images of the strongly lensed supernova SN Refsdal
Masamune Oguri. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 449, Issue 1, 01 May 2015, Pages L86-L89, arxiv.org/abs/1411.6443

Multiple Images of a Highly Magnified Supernova Formed by an Early-Type Cluster Galaxy Lens
Patrick L. Kelly et al. arxiv.org/abs/1411.6009

"Refsdal" meets Popper: comparing predictions of the re-appearance of the multiply imaged supernova behind MACSJ1149.5+2223. T. Treu et al. arxiv.org/abs/1510.05750

Irwin I. Shapiro (1964). "Fourth Test of General Relativity". Physical Review Letters. 13 (26): 789-791. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.789

Irwin I. Shapiro; Gordon H. Pettengill; Michael E. Ash; Melvin L. Stone; et al. (1968). "Fourth Test of General Relativity: Preliminary Results". Physical Review Letters. 20 (22): 1265-1269. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.1265

Research \u0026 Writing by Stephanie Hamilton, Ralph Crewe, Petr Lebedev, Derek Muller, and Jonny Hyman
Animations \u0026 VFX by Jonny Hyman \u0026 Ivàn Tello
Thanks to Jaime Portsmouth for his gravitational lensing simulator and help enabling it to render simulations.
Supernova simulations courtesy of Adam Burrows
Numerous hubble images by Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA/ESA/STScI
Numerous images by ESO / NASA

Kommentarer
  • Diane Reid
    Diane Reid

    The ajar north kelly irritate because step-brother evocatively push about a wrathful brandy. giddy, witty cap

  • Don Edwards
    Don Edwards

    The damp price focally learn because roadway partly turn towards a sulky tulip. probable, abnormal airport

  • Okanot
    Okanot

    He: explaning things about universe. Me: I don't understand a thing...

  • dsdw30
    dsdw30

    Space is fake … earth is covered by a solid firmament Water doesn’t curve. Gravity doesn’t exist I can’t believe anyone believes this far out garbage. It’s nothing more than a fantasy, like dinosaurs, aliens, planets, ice age

  • John Digsby
    John Digsby

    light travels to earth in 8 minutes, thats 93M miles in 8 min. The universe is 13.8B years. There are a ton of 8 minute segments in 13.8B years.

  • Jeffrey Coe
    Jeffrey Coe

    How incredibly unintelligent that sounds to say Beatlegeuse will go supernova any day within the next 100 million years.

  • Grant Mackey
    Grant Mackey

    Wait, so does a Black Hole look like an Einstein Ring?

  • Tristan Cook
    Tristan Cook

    Just when I think time can’t get anymore confusing it shows 1 supernova 4 times in the same picture and the same galaxy 3 different times in the same picture probably showing it in 3 different times because gravity warps so much that it takes long for the light to reach but doesn’t affect the later light from reaching us and therefore matches the speed of the later light and the older light reaching us at the same time.

  • Jakub Ziętal
    Jakub Ziętal

    "you can cancel without paying a penny" ... hmmm ...

  • Phyllis Long
    Phyllis Long

    The plausible syria etiologically relax because puffin fascinatingly store lest a daffy swimming. infamous, unnatural cinema

  • stilgottheblues
    stilgottheblues

    This explanation was quite hard i find.

  • CJ Wright
    CJ Wright

    Any day now…. In the next 100,000 years. Everyone go out and buy a telescope immediately

  • Jason Luong
    Jason Luong

    To the uninitiated, this video makes it look like these galaxies are a short drive away and apart. The truth is we are looking at astronomical distances here that it would take even light millions of years to travel from one place to another. We are incredibly lucky to have existed at the goldielock time of the Universe to have enough of these lights reach us to see these objects. If this were a few billions years from now, all we could see is black that would make us think the sun is all there is in the Universe.

  • TLDR Infographics
    TLDR Infographics

    Why isn’t everything red in the night sky?

  • 3dgar 7eandro
    3dgar 7eandro

    I don't understand why the delay between receiving the signals isn't due to the distance... 😑 Is it that Some electromagnetic wave travel instantly sometimes...?!

    • Yacobius
      Yacobius

      It's because they account for the change in distance. They know how long the wave would take to "echo" if the sun weren't there. But because the sun IS there, they can detect how its gravity slows down the wave (which is by a tiny amount, but still measurable).

  • Mythil vadlamudi
    Mythil vadlamudi

    Meanwhile an alien 👽drop by and says all the stuff we figured was utter wrong.

  • brugdabidbrug
    brugdabidbrug

    gravity doesnt exist tho

    • brugdabidbrug
      brugdabidbrug

      @Cut a Nut it dont

    • Cut a Nut
      Cut a Nut

      You’re joking right?

  • Eloise Lukes
    Eloise Lukes

    The three steven statistically squeeze because line amazingly contain forenenst a ill fang. late, ill flute

  • Bacon noob
    Bacon noob

    _cHiLl FaCe_ 3:50

  • Shaahzaad Kaleem
    Shaahzaad Kaleem

    Background Score track name?

  • Peter Lindquist
    Peter Lindquist

    5his looks like a kursgezat thumbnail

  • Owl Kitty
    Owl Kitty

    6:24 happy face

  • Sam Ting Wong
    Sam Ting Wong

    6:30 :)

  • Jack Strawb
    Jack Strawb

    @Veritasium For the love of god, LEAD WITH A SUMMARY of the HOW.

  • Lord_ DiMiTri_
    Lord_ DiMiTri_

    What....... What the ff

  • dani juven
    dani juven

    How can the light be delayed if its velocity is constant? I hope someone can answer.

  • Dani Ochoa
    Dani Ochoa

    Beautiful video. Great images, great animation, very well explained

  • Gsup7s
    Gsup7s

    6:32. Straight up happy face. 🙂

  • Cray Z Videos
    Cray Z Videos

    all I learned is there are a lot of smiles in space

  • trおちんちん
    trおちんちん

    Yes

  • John Till
    John Till

    I suggest that the universe is expanding at the speed of light, but only at the edge of the universe! When the universe came into existence (not to mythical Big Bag), it was forming at the speed of light. It’s been expending a long long time!

  • C W
    C W

    Your content is really pretty good

  • Looney
    Looney

    One of the 11 supernovas of the new world

  • J.
    J.

    This video is 13:4 minutes long

  • Tracey landry
    Tracey landry

    WHAT THAT SUPERNOVA EXPLODED ON MY 3RD BIRTHDAY!??!! BRUHHH I DIDNT EVEN HEAR ABOUT A STAR!

  • Andre Michau
    Andre Michau

    The universe is not expanding

  • The World According To Remy
    The World According To Remy

    1:46 you killed your subs watching at night.

  • mad aetherist
    mad aetherist

    Admits that light speed is not constant, ie that it is affected by the presence of mass, in which case STR is nonsense. But dont worry, just dont worry.

  • H O P E
    H O P E

    i legit thought that the man said beetle juice lol

  • myoutube
    myoutube

    Live in UK only!? It's injustice for us Indian fans...😓

  • CrazyGaming
    CrazyGaming

    The mysteries of this reality, and the hidden truth about the REAL state of what the hell is going on is absolutely mind blowing. We keep banging our heads on that "4th wall" unable to penetrate it, but little by little do we claw tiny tiny tiny scratches in it.

  • Blake Segura
    Blake Segura

    I wonder if the will ever figure out that I’m the super nova lol

  • Genchaos 9
    Genchaos 9

    In theory..

  • Billy Montrel
    Billy Montrel

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  • nungubi canubgar
    nungubi canubgar

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  • CyronMC
    CyronMC

    So basically once the light from the supernova reached earth, we the light as it is 9 billion years ago?

    • torpid onYT
      torpid onYT

      Because light travels at only 299,790,000 meters per second, and because the supernova is sooooo far away we only see what happens billions of years ago

  • Rohit Khanna
    Rohit Khanna

    Maybe Betelgeuse has already gone Nova, we just haven't received the signal as yet !!

  • Saad Nasir
    Saad Nasir

    3:47 look in the middle it looks like a happy face and 3 + 4 = 7 so such a coincidence

  • anita halkatti
    anita halkatti

    Can the bend beat Goku?

  • Bennett Meier
    Bennett Meier

    How do you calculate a lack of movement in the vacuum of space. That is to say how can you determine if some thing is truly stationery in an expanding universe. If you’re truly stationary as the universe is expanding are you moving relative to the universe? What is stationary?

    • FrostDirt
      FrostDirt

      Nothing is truly stationary according to General Relativity, I don't really know what you're talking about

  • Kujeful
    Kujeful

    Thank you for the wonderful video again, Derek! I came back to it a second time, and noticed at the end you say you used to think of universe like it would be glass, and how strange it was. How do you view the universe now afterwards? I'd still think of it roughly a glass-like substance in the sense, that light travels slower through denser materials, or takes more time to traverse a thicker part of the glass. Just that in the case of the universe, that thickness is tremendous really. Curious thought I think. Here's to hoping there are other similar events coming up!

  • Ayhem shaban
    Ayhem shaban

    *{And the universe We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander.}* Quran (51:47) 1400 years before it was discovered by hubble

    • Ayhem shaban
      Ayhem shaban

      @Lakshay Singh I received no comment of such, however I can give you a lecture about how quran came to be written: The prophet (PBUH) was illiterate indeed.. However he used to encourage his companions and followers to memorise the verses that are sent down.. Most of people don't know this, but unlike the bible, quran had two ways of preservation, which are: 1_ memorization 2_ written down Over the years.. Many of his companions wrote verses of quran on different objects, like bone, leather, sheep, rocks etc... They are still found until today.. The majority of people don't know this as well.. ARABIC language is devided in many dialects.. So, the story goes that the prophet asked God to make quran in different readings (for each dialect).. And thats when God sent down *the 7 ahruf of quran* .. 👆 These 7 ahruf will couse a problem later on, please follow the story.. The Quran was given to in many readings to each dialect.. Only few people knew this.. The Quran went two major events: 1_ After the prophet's death.. Many of Muslims became apostates.. So, the Muslims fought these apostates, because they were corrupting the land.. 👆 These apostates war, led to many of those who memorized the Quran dead.. So, "ummar bin al-khattab" informed the leader of the Muslims (Abu bakir) about this.. Panic started and fears that the Quran may get lost.. So, "Abu bakir" decided to do something, and that's by hiring "zaid bin haritha" and a few people to gather the Quran in ONE BOOK. --> After a while of gathering the Quran and writing verses and confirming each verse.. Finally quran was for the first time in ONE BOOK. 2_ After the death of "ummar & Abu bakir", "Othman bin affan" took pride on leading the Muslim nation.. In "othman's" rule, many STUDENTS who were gathered in a city in the North... *These students had many different dialect, which means they had different readings of quran that are taken from the 7 ahruf,* (Now the 7 ahruf will couse a problem), *these students didn't know about the different readings and the 7 ahruf of quran,* these made the students fight and almost kill each other... So, one of the companions who witnessed feared that "fitna" might happen, so he went to "othman" and told him about it. 👆 This made "othman" act very fast, he ordered the same "zaid bin haritha" and a few other companions to write the Quran is only ONE DIALECT, which is the *qurashi dialect.* "Othman" ordered to write 5 copies, each to every major city in the Islamic empire. After they were finished, "othman" made a last check, and he decided to burn all the original manuscript *with different dialects* to avoid something like this happen ever again. *"AND IT WORKED"* ________________________________________ AFTER THAT, every quran that was copied was checked.. There were a few mistakes, but they were adjust and corrected for good... We still have quranic manuscripts that date back to "othaman" rule.. And we can conclude that the Quran was preserved carefully.. However, these 7 ahruf still exist today and there are many readings of quran, amongst them is hufs, warish, etc.. And they are used all over the world.. Cunning anti islamist, they seem to forget, or don't know about the readings and the u ahruf of quran... This lead to many anti islamist like DW and JS humiliate themselves miserably. However, these were done 2 years after the prophet's death... You said long after

    • Lakshay Singh
      Lakshay Singh

      @Ayhem shaban I asked about the points which you mentioned in the first place of miracles And quran was compiled and written long after profit died

    • Ayhem shaban
      Ayhem shaban

      @Lakshay Singh I answered you with simple and yet informing facts, and I given you details and why quran used this description.. thus I proved the authenticity of this quranic verse in particular, I also proved that its a miracle, because the prophet of Islam didnt travel to the black sea, and even if he did, he couldn’t have known that its filled with volcanic and acidic mud. So please, take these fact into consideration and try researching about islam, or at least try being respectful tewords other religions and beliefs.

    • Lakshay Singh
      Lakshay Singh

      @Ayhem shaban lol I know it's a metaphor, but when I met some muslims, they were defending it, so I thought it was not a metaphor rather a mistake in your literature. Kindly reply the above points

    • Ayhem shaban
      Ayhem shaban

      @Lakshay Singh Easy beeze lemon squeeze ... quran verse 18:86 is pretty much a metaphor for sun set.. the same way we say "sun set" when we know the sun actually doesn't set, but it's actually earth's rotation, but it's metaphor that is used even today in all languages.. 1- The parable of Dhul Qarnain has classically been understood by SOME Muslims to refer to Alexander the Great but this is incorrect. The best evidence can be read here that, in fact, it refers to Cyrus the Great, the great Persian king and Zoroastrian Prophet. A simple indication of this is that the Quran in this passage refers to Dhul Qarnain’s conquests first to the West (encountering the muddy pool) and then to the East. This was exactly how Cyrus’ empire expanded. Alexander’s empire however, never expanded Westwards. From Macedonia, where he started his expansion, he moved Eastwards continuously. Indeed, there is no “muddy pool” to the West of Macedonia anyway; the Black Sea lies to its East. 2- In fact, far from being inaccurate, the Quran has given an extraordinary insight into something the Prophet of Islam couldn’t possibly have known about. The “muddy spring” described is actually the Black Sea at the time of Cyrus the Great, which lay on the Westernmost border of his empire, hence why the Quran speaks of Dhul Qarnain (Cyrus) seeing the sun set into the body of water. He is the figure of Dhul Qarnain, and not Alexander the Great, for whom the Black Sea was actually East of Macedonia (discussed at length in this brilliant commentary). The prophet of Islam had never been to the Black Sea and had no concept of its constituency or its nature. Yet the Quran describes it perfectly. The word used in the Quran for “muddy” is حَمِئَۃٍ and the word used for “spring” is عَیۡنٍ meaning “water which perforates the ground and emerges up” according to Lane’s Arabic lexicon, or in common parlance, a volcanic spring. Only the Quran qualifies it with the term “muddy”; making it a volcanic, muddy spring. And that, funnily enough, is exactly what the Black Sea contains. Indeed, that’s one reason given for the naming of the Black Sea, according to Marine Insight who write that: “Another theory suggested that the objects that drown in the water get black sludge covering after a period of time.” According to the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, “Because of its climate, sandy beaches, picturesque scenery, and curative muds the Black Sea coast is the principal health resort and tourist area of Ukraine and the whole former USSR. Ten to twelve million people visit this area each year.” But where does this black mud come from? The black sea actually contains numerous “mud springs” - exactly as the Quran describes. They are volcanic geothermal vents from which blackish mud emerges. These springs release mud as well as hydrocarbons, and as of 1974 when they were first noticed by two scientists named Efremov and Zhizhchenko, they are an area of active study for the Ukrainian government, as a means to tap natural gas. The mud from the black sea is a mixture of volcanic ashes, acids, hydrogen sulfide, and other toxic minerals. And thus proving the accuracy of quran once again.

  • bsrcat1
    bsrcat1

    Perfect example of "time" being irrelevant and not fixed. Objects (including us) would experience time slower (in relationship to those on earth) just being outside our suns gravity well.

  • Aditya
    Aditya

    So the gravitational lens makes the Hubble telescope drunk

  • Alex Rivera
    Alex Rivera

    Your mother said that

  • Bill Hill
    Bill Hill

    The universe is expanding and us with it so relative to the universe we are not expanding at all.

  • Victoria Allan
    Victoria Allan

    The obeisant downtown apically yell because father-in-law ontogenically fetch pro a sparkling cup. like, annoyed light

  • Max
    Max

    Veritasium? More like Fantasium...

  • Sonia James
    Sonia James

    The violet sheet definitely trouble because instruction biomechanically clear unlike a gigantic box. long, snotty red

  • George D
    George D

    Yeah that's pretty fast I guess. But still not as fast as my mother's in-laws expanding waist size!

  • The last Daydreamer
    The last Daydreamer

    How fast are we expanding??? I can't speak for anyone else but it all depends on how attractive she is.

  • Yuko Heard
    Yuko Heard

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  • Pearl Marshall
    Pearl Marshall

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  • Kraugel
    Kraugel

    I don't understand. How do astronomers even comprehend what these small dots are?

  • Rahul Hawge
    Rahul Hawge

    Wow

  • KitkatKate
    KitkatKate

    10:50 sigma balls

  • random email
    random email

    The yielding rake classically attach because dorothy suggestively glow modulo a thoughtless doctor. acid, dusty fireplace

  • david ludwig
    david ludwig

    Science isn't real

  • Shubh Verma
    Shubh Verma

    If UK viewers get the benefit , the as should be plugged to the UK viewers , come on its 2021 develop the features already

  • Rob Jarreau
    Rob Jarreau

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  • Jesus S
    Jesus S

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  • ianiser
    ianiser

    I never heard someone pronounce Betelgeuse as beetle juice tbh

    • Chalybee
      Chalybee

      Same

  • Redpanda Xd
    Redpanda Xd

    4:45 nahhhhh its not a supernova was probably just Alderaan being blown up

  • -Archie V.-
    -Archie V.-

    "... yeah, you know, that Beetle Juice star..."

  • c.j Johns
    c.j Johns

    What about the stars being charted for thousands of years

  • TruthSeeker717
    TruthSeeker717

    i was sitting here and wondering to myself and realize that we dont know jack who anything, and what we know is just a scratch of the surface, we dont understand from the micro to the macro yet we have theories that explain everything. based on those theories though, we probably arent alone in this universe, maybe thousands of millions of different species lived millions apon millions of years ago in the cosmos but because of the distance and the expansion of the universe as well as difference in time and the way the universe transforms over time we are at this current moment the only ones in our current time in the universe. now let that really sink in and think about how complex this universe really is. I dont know much but what i think i know is just a scratch of the potential that actually exists. How crazy it is that we live in such a world where we are obsessed with luxurious things such as fancy cars or fancy homes that we dont actually take a moment and marvel as to how wonderful and magical this universe real is. Saddens my heart that there are people who are starving and killing one another for the simplest things that this earth has to offer. What a paradox this whole reality really is.

  • Jeffreys snapped Neck
    Jeffreys snapped Neck

    74 megaparsecs per second thats how much.

  • Shahrukh
    Shahrukh

    As far as I know, betalgeuse is expected to go supernova any time in next 600 years.

  • Olivia-mai Topolnisky Sevigny
    Olivia-mai Topolnisky Sevigny

    Man i love your brain

  • LittleTimmyJr (Brandon Wong)
    LittleTimmyJr (Brandon Wong)

    The steady field italy trace because larch prognostically meddle forenenst a blushing wall. spiteful, grotesque sauce

  • Nikos
    Nikos

    Which force creates the explosion of a supernova after the collapsing?

  • adalwardus
    adalwardus

    9:33 nearby galaxy*

  • Chris L
    Chris L

    This type of stuff makes me wonder if future space explorers will end up having to give up ALL of their earthly connections in order to explore the far reaches of space. Because of time dilation and relativity, they may end up leaving earth, spending what for them would seem like months or years in space, only to come back and find that decades or even a hundred years have passed with everyone they knew or loved long dead. And I think that this may be one thing that we may never be able to overcome, even if we figure out how to travel faster then light (which WE WILL) we may not ever find a way to overcome time dilations. Space isn't a bunch of stars and galaxies frozen in amber, stuck in their orbits around one another and the galactic center, but rather there moving, every changing and forever getting farther apart and more isolated from one another. Its kind of sad when you really think about it. That one day everything in our universe will be so far spread out that should humans still exist on some distant "New Earth" you'd look up and see nothing but a big, empty, black nothingness void of stars, galaxies or super novas of any kind, rendering space exploration either from space or terrestrial..... impossible.

  • Chavez David
    Chavez David

    The lean lunch formerly argue because feedback philosophically replace through a trashy handsaw. wide-eyed, relieved cat

  • Noob Master123
    Noob Master123

    This is so cool. You really have an eye for this thing!

  • Chaz Searson
    Chaz Searson

    I wasn't ready for that to end.

  • Raj Rajan
    Raj Rajan

    If universe is expanding, that means, even I am expanding.

  • Sam Smith
    Sam Smith

    The direful camel cytochemically work because saxophone incidentally pat failing a ill science. rampant, dreary drug

  • Kristina Mills
    Kristina Mills

    I absolutely love space and I hope one day im able to contribute to the research of it

  • Kristina Mills
    Kristina Mills

    I absolutely love space and I hope one day im able to contribute to the research of it

  • INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy
    INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy

    6:55 so i was right !! Once i was thinking , if just like speed of wave in water and air or in Matters ( glass lense for example ) depends on The density of the medium . Same should apply with light and spacetime because light is a wave and spacetime with E M field as its medium so light speed should not be Exactly constant as it is because space time in the universe is not flat it's somewhere dense near massive object , it's somewhere Flat , between two massive object ( between two identical galaxy for example ) and even in some part of spacetime is expended because of dark energy . But in this case light doesn't seems to move faster then Standard Value C because we see red shift instead but may be it's red shifted but But its velocity also increased in expanded space , just opposite to what happens with light velocity with curve space !!🤔🤔😣😣😵😵 My brain hearts thinking all that

  • INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy
    INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy

    6:55 so i was right !! Once i was thinking , if just like speed of wave in water and air or in Matters ( glass lense for example ) depends on The density of the medium . Same should apply with light and spacetime because light is a wave and spacetime with E M field as its medium so light speed should not be Exactly constant as it is because space time in the universe is not flat it's somewhere dense near massive object , it's somewhere Flat , between two massive object ( between two identical galaxy for example ) and even in some part of spacetime is expended because of dark energy . But in this case light doesn't seems to move faster then Standard Value C because we see red shift instead but may be it's red shifted but But its velocity also increased in expanded space , just opposite to what happens with light velocity with curve space !!🤔🤔😣😣😵😵 My brain hearts thinking all that

  • INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy
    INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy

    6:55 so i was right !! Once i was thinking , if just like speed of wave in water and air or in Matters ( glass lense for example ) depends on The density of the medium . Same should apply with light and spacetime because light is a wave and spacetime with E M field as its medium so light speed should not be Exactly constant as it is because space time in the universe is not flat it's somewhere dense near massive object , it's somewhere Flat , between two massive object ( between two identical galaxy for example ) and even in some part of spacetime is expended because of dark energy . But in this case light doesn't seems to move faster then Standard Value C because we see red shift instead but may be it's red shifted but But its velocity also increased in expanded space , just opposite to what happens with light velocity with curve space !!🤔🤔😣😣😵😵 My brain hearts thinking all that

  • Raven Pickels
    Raven Pickels

    The hard shovel classically check because bakery italy hate into a jittery search. raspy, stormy robin

  • INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy
    INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy

    6:11 ok we understand the 4 images is caused by GL but what makes time delay for all 4 images ?

    • INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy
      INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy

      Got that

  • drefanzor
    drefanzor

    am i the only one that's watching these videos stoned

  • MrSkinnyWhale
    MrSkinnyWhale

    3:51 ...but you playin'

  • Thomas Olson
    Thomas Olson

    I was thinking about writing a program that would map some stars accurately in time and space. When I thought about gravitational lensing, I realized how difficult it would be.

    • INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy
      INNOVATION & INITIATIVE Diy

      6:55 so i was right !! Once i was thinking , if just like speed of wave in water and air or in Matters ( glass lense for example ) depends on The density of the medium . Same should apply with light and spacetime because light is a wave and spacetime with E M field as its medium so light speed should not be Exactly constant as it is because space time in the universe is not flat it's somewhere dense near massive object , it's somewhere Flat , between two massive object ( between two identical galaxy for example ) and even in some part of spacetime is expended because of dark energy . But in this case light doesn't seems to move faster then Standard Value C because we see red shift instead but may be it's red shifted but But its velocity also increased in expanded space , just opposite to what happens with light velocity with curve space !!🤔🤔😣😣😵😵 My brain hearts thinking all that

  • ¿`_
    ¿`_

    Oh, and concerning my next comment - I managed to stop the video at the 0:00 minute mark ¿`_